10. Pythagoras

Since at least the first century BC, Pythagoras has

commonly been given credit for discovering the Pythagorean

theorem ,a theorem in geometry that states that

"in a right-angled triangle the square of the hypotenuse is

equal to the sum of the squares of the two other

sides".

9. Andrew Wiles

Wiles was born on 11 April 1953 in Cambridge , England,

the son of Maurice Frank Wiles (1923–2005), the Regius

Professor of Divinity at the University of Oxford , and

Patricia Wiles (nÃ©e Mowll). His father worked as the

Chaplain at Ridley Hall, Cambridge , for the years 1952–55.

Wiles attended King's College School, Cambridge, and The

Leys School, Cambridge .

Wiles states that he came across Fermat's Last Theorem

on his way home from school when he was 10 years old.

He stopped at his local library where he found a book about

the theorem. Fascinated by the existence of a theorem

that was so easy to state that he, a ten-year-old, could

understand it, but that no one had proven, he decided to be

the first person to prove it.

the son of Maurice Frank Wiles (1923–2005), the Regius

Professor of Divinity at the University of Oxford , and

Patricia Wiles (nÃ©e Mowll). His father worked as the

Chaplain at Ridley Hall, Cambridge , for the years 1952–55.

Wiles attended King's College School, Cambridge, and The

Leys School, Cambridge .

Wiles states that he came across Fermat's Last Theorem

on his way home from school when he was 10 years old.

He stopped at his local library where he found a book about

the theorem. Fascinated by the existence of a theorem

that was so easy to state that he, a ten-year-old, could

understand it, but that no one had proven, he decided to be

the first person to prove it.

However, he soon realised that

his knowledge was too limited, so he abandoned his

childhood dream, until it was brought back to his attention

at the age of 33 by Ken Ribet 's 1986 proof of the epsilon

conjecture , which Gerhard Frey had previously linked to

Fermat's famous equation.

8. Isaac Newton and Wilhelm Leibniz

Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz are two of

the most supreme intellects of the 17th century. They are

both considered to be the inventors of Calculus. However,

after a terrible dispute, Sir Isaac Newton took most of the

credit.

the most supreme intellects of the 17th century. They are

both considered to be the inventors of Calculus. However,

after a terrible dispute, Sir Isaac Newton took most of the

credit.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) was a

German philosopher, mathematician, and statesman born

in the country of Leipzig. He received his education at the

universities of Leipzig, Jena, and Altdorf. He received a

doctorate in law. He devoted much of his time to the

principle studies of mathematics, science, and philosophy.

Leibniz’s contribution in mathematics was in the year

1675, when he discovered the fundamental principles of

infinitesimal calculus. He arrived at this discovery

independently at the same time along with the English

scientist Sir Isaac Newton in 1666.

However, Leibniz’s

system was published in 1684, three years before Newton

published his. Also at this time Leibniz’s method of

notation, known as mathematical symbols, were adopted

universally.

7. Alan Turing

Turing was an English computer scientist,

mathematician, logician , cryptanalyst, philosopher, and

theoretical biologist. He was highly influential in the

development of theoretical computer science, providing a

formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation

with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model

of a general purpose computer.

mathematician, logician , cryptanalyst, philosopher, and

theoretical biologist. He was highly influential in the

development of theoretical computer science, providing a

formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation

with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model

of a general purpose computer.

Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence .

6. Leonardo Pisano Bigollo

Leonardo popularized the Hindu–Arabic numeral system in

the Western World primarily through his composition in

1202 of Liber Abaci (Book of Calculation). He also

introduced Europe to the sequence of Fibonacci numbers,

which he used as an example in Liber Abaci.

the Western World primarily through his composition in

1202 of Liber Abaci (Book of Calculation). He also

introduced Europe to the sequence of Fibonacci numbers,

which he used as an example in Liber Abaci.

5. RenÃ© Descartes

French Philosopher, Physicist and Mathematician, Rene

Descartes is best known for his ‘Cogito Ergo Sum’

philosophy. Despite this, the Frenchman, who lived 1596 to

1650, made ground breaking contributions to mathematics.

Alongside Newton and Leibniz, Descartes helped provide the

foundations of modern calculus (which Newton and Leibniz

later built upon), which in itself had great bearing on the

modern day field.

Alongside this, and perhaps more familiar

Descartes is best known for his ‘Cogito Ergo Sum’

philosophy. Despite this, the Frenchman, who lived 1596 to

1650, made ground breaking contributions to mathematics.

Alongside Newton and Leibniz, Descartes helped provide the

foundations of modern calculus (which Newton and Leibniz

later built upon), which in itself had great bearing on the

modern day field.

Alongside this, and perhaps more familiar

to the reader, is his development of Cartesian Geometry,

known to most as the standard graph (Square grid lines, x

and y axis, etc.) and its use of algebra to describe the

various locations on such. Before this most geometers used

plain paper (or another material or surface) to preform their

art.

Previously, such distances had to be measured literally,

or scaled. With the introduction of Cartesian Geometry this

changed dramatically, points could now be expressed as

points on a graph, and as such, graphs could be drawn to

any scale, also these points did not necessarily have to be

numbers.

known to most as the standard graph (Square grid lines, x

and y axis, etc.) and its use of algebra to describe the

various locations on such. Before this most geometers used

plain paper (or another material or surface) to preform their

art.

Previously, such distances had to be measured literally,

or scaled. With the introduction of Cartesian Geometry this

changed dramatically, points could now be expressed as

points on a graph, and as such, graphs could be drawn to

any scale, also these points did not necessarily have to be

numbers.

The final contribution to the field was his

introduction of superscripts within algebra to express

powers. And thus, like many others in this list, contributed

to the development of modern mathematical notation.

4. Euclid of Alexandria

Euclid was a Greek mathematician , often

referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of

geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the reign of

Ptolemy I (323–283 BC).

His Elements is one of the most

influential works in the history of mathematics , serving as

the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially

geometry ) from the time of its publication until the late 19th

or early 20th century.

referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of

geometry". He was active in Alexandria during the reign of

Ptolemy I (323–283 BC).

His Elements is one of the most

influential works in the history of mathematics , serving as

the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially

geometry ) from the time of its publication until the late 19th

or early 20th century.

In the Elements, Euclid

deduced the theorems of what is now called Euclidean

geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wrote

works on perspective, conic sections , spherical geometry,

number theory, and rigor.

3. G. F. Bernhard Riemann

Riemann was a German

mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number

theory , and differential geometry. In the field of real analysis,

he is mostly known for the first rigorous formulation of the

integral, the Riemann integral, and his work on Fourier

series.

mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number

theory , and differential geometry. In the field of real analysis,

he is mostly known for the first rigorous formulation of the

integral, the Riemann integral, and his work on Fourier

series.

His contributions to complex analysis include most

notably the introduction of Riemann surfaces , breaking new

ground in a natural, geometric treatment of complex

analysis.

His famous 1859 paper on the prime-counting

function , containing the original statement of the Riemann

hypothesis , is regarded as one of the most influential papers

in analytic number theory. Through his pioneering

contributions to differential geometry ,

Riemann laid the

foundations of the mathematics of general relativity

2. Carl Friedrich Gauss

Carl was a German mathematician

and physicist who made significant contributions to many

fields, including algebra, analysis , astronomy , differential

geometry , electrostatics , geodesy , geophysics, magnetic

fields , matrix theory, mechanics , number theory , optics and

statistics.

and physicist who made significant contributions to many

fields, including algebra, analysis , astronomy , differential

geometry , electrostatics , geodesy , geophysics, magnetic

fields , matrix theory, mechanics , number theory , optics and

statistics.

Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum

( Latin for "the foremost of mathematicians") and "the

greatest mathematician since antiquity",

Gauss had an

exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and

science, and is ranked among history's most influential

mathematicians.

( Latin for "the foremost of mathematicians") and "the

greatest mathematician since antiquity",

Gauss had an

exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and

science, and is ranked among history's most influential

mathematicians.

1. Leonhard Euler

Leonhard was a Swiss

mathematician , physicist , astronomer , logician and

engineer , who made important and influential discoveries in

many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal

calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering

contributions to several branches such as topology and

analytic number theory.

mathematician , physicist , astronomer , logician and

engineer , who made important and influential discoveries in

many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal

calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering

contributions to several branches such as topology and

analytic number theory.

He also introduced much of the

modern mathematical terminology and notation , particularly

for mathematical analysis , such as the notion of a

mathematical function.

He is well known for his work in

mechanics , fluid dynamics , optics , astronomy , and music

theory. Euler was one of the most eminent mathematicians of the

18th century and is held to be one of the greatest in history.

He is also widely considered to be the most prolific

mathematician of all time. His collected works fill 60 to 80

quarto volumes, more than anybody in the field.

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